How To Grow Lettuce All Year Long (2018 Update)

We all eat it, but have you wondered how to grow lettuce?

There’s a reason that lettuce is one of the most popular plants to grow. Lettuce is so easy, packed with nutrients, and absolutely delicious, so it’s no surprise we all love to grow this versatile green.

It can be grown in almost any location in the garden – straight in the soil, on the windowsill, or even between your flowers.

With a good focus on gardening basics like proper water, shade, and planting in succession, lettuce can be a constant harvest from your garden almost the entire year long.​ Let’s explore the diversity of lettuce types and find the perfect variety for you!

Good Products To Treat Lettuce Pests/Diseases:

Lettuce: Quick Care Guide

Little Gem lettuce rows
Rows of Little Gem lettuce. Source: Suzies Farm
Common Name Lettuce
Scientific Name Lactuca sativa
Germination Time 2-12 days
Days to Harvest Depends on cultivar/size of leaf
Light Part sun to shade
Water Regular, about 1” per week or more in hot conditions
Temperature 45-65 degrees Fahrenheit preferred, can tolerate heats up to 75 degrees
Humidity Humidity-tolerant
Soil Well-draining, humus-rich soil
Fertilizer Nitrogen-rich fertilizers such as fish or seaweed-based liquids or alfalfa meal. Regular applications of compost also recommended.
Pests Aphids, thrips, flea beetles, cutworms, root knot nematodes, snails, slugs, larger animals like rabbits/woodchucks/deer
Diseases Fungal infections like sclerotinia, bacterial infections such as pseudomonas, downy mildew, aphid-borne disease like lettuce necrotic yellows or the lettuce mosaic virus

Recommended Lettuce Varieties

There are many, many kinds of lettuce available. Whether you prefer the salad standard of Iceberg (crispheads), or a nice leafy green, there’s going to be a lettuce for you! Let’s go over some different kinds and see the differences.

Cos Lettuce

Parris Island Cos lettuce
Parris Island Cos lettuce. Source: essgee51

The term “cos” is a term for the romaine types of lettuce. These lettuces have an erect growth pattern, with long spoon-shaped leaves that form a tight head pattern. Most are rounded-tipped varieties with a satisfying crunch. Varieties range from pale green to extremely dark red in coloration.

It’s also heat tolerant, while being more nutritious than iceberg.  The hearts of the cos varieties can be used as celery substitutes (although they have a different flavor profile).  Romaine lettuce is a classic choice for Caesar salad.

The name “cos” comes from the Greek island of Cos, which is where Romaine-style lettuces are believed to have originated.

Variety Growing Time Description Where To Buy
Breen 45 days A mini-romaine variety which produces bronze-red, oval-shaped leaves. Slow to become oversized. Buy Seeds
Little Gem 50 days A popular variety. Often grown to produce extremely tasty romaine hearts. Buy Seeds
Garnet Rose 74 days Can be grown as either a Romaine-type lettuce or a leaf-type. Garnet-colored savoyed leaves. Buy Seeds
Truchas 55 days Striking red-topped leaves with green ribs and veins. No bitterness in flavor. Buy Seeds
Jericho 56 days Extremely bolt-resistant and heat-resistant, great flavor, popular romaine type. Buy Seeds
Holon 55 days A light green romaine with dense, upright heads. Downy mildew-resistant. Buy Seeds
Parris Island Cos 65 days Heirloom lettuce variety with pale hearts and excellent mild flavor. Buy Seeds
Rouge d’Hiver 60 days Heirloom red romaine type from 1885. Bright leaves turn darker red in colder weather. Buy Seeds
Marshall 65 days Burgundy, almost purple succulent leaves in a tight upright head formation. Buy Seeds
Freckles 55 days Brilliant green leaves with burgundy spotting. Heat-resistant, bolt-resistant. Buy Seeds

Looseleaf Lettuce

Black Seeded Simpson lettuce
Black Seeded Simpson lettuce. Source: Campobello Island

Leaf lettuce, also referred to as looseleaf lettuce, doesn’t form as compact and tight of a head. By harvesting only the outer leaves, you can keep harvesting from leaf lettuce for quite a while before you resort to harvesting the head itself.

These plants are often raised for baby lettuce leaves, but are still quite tasty as full-grown leaves. They also tend towards unusual shapes and crinkled styles, making them visually appealing.

Variety Growing Time Description Where To Buy
Cavendish 35 days A baby-leaf variety with sawblade-like dark red leaves. Resistant to downy mildew. Buy Seeds
Sunset 50 days A crinkled looseleaf variety with green striations. Very attractive. Slow to bolt. Buy Seeds
Devil’s Ear 50 days Large-spreading loose-leaf heads with burgundy-colored edges. Crisp texture. Buy Seeds
Winterwunder 60 days Very winter-hardy. Large, 9-11″ light green head with curly leaves. Buy Seeds
Black Seeded Simpson 45 days Slow to bolt, heat-resistant. Ruffled light green leaves. Popular variety. Buy Seeds
Starfighter 52 days Disease, pest and heat resistant, with medium-sized head growth and good flavor. Buy Seeds
Green Ice 45 days Sweet-flavored lettuce with large clusters of ruffled green leaves. Buy Seeds
Merlot 55 days Extremely dark red lettuce with crisp, waxy leaves. Good cold tolerance. Buy Seeds
Panisse 48 days Lime-green large leaves, high resistance to downy mildew. Buy Seeds
Ashley 47 days Bronze to red colored oakleaf lettuce. Great heat tolerance, good for baby greens. Buy Seeds

Crisphead Lettuce

Red Iceberg and romaine lettuce
Red Iceberg lettuce on the top, romaine on the bottom. Source: rodeworks

The crisphead is the variety that most of us are familiar with from the grocery store.  It’s popular because it does well in hot weather and has thick, crunchy leaves. Unfortunately, it doesn’t contain a lot of nutrients, although it’s a good source of fiber.

Variety Growing Time Description Where To Buy
Crispino 57 days An iceberg-type with medium-sized firm heads. Less susceptible to twisted leaves. Buy Seeds
Iceberg 85 days The classic “salad lettuce” of the United States. 1894 heirloom crisphead lettuce. Buy Seeds
Pablo 70 days Batavian-type lettuce with bronze-purple leaves on the exterior. Beautiful appearance. Buy Seeds
Joker 60 days Wild, wavy-leaved heading lettuce in pale green with purple and burgundy markings. Buy Seeds
Great Lakes 118 75 days Farming standard for commercial growers. Early spring and late fall lettuce. Buy Seeds
Coastline 32 days Frillice or frilly-leaved lettuce variety with a crisp bite. Pretty in salads. Buy Seeds
Igloo 70 days Quick-growing and heat resistant. Good mild flavor and bright green coloring. Buy Seeds
Rouge Grenobloise 55 days Red-tinted crisphead. Cold-hardy, slow to bolt. Old lettuce variety. Buy Seeds
Gondar 60 days Heads close early and fill in quickly. Big green crunchy lettuce. Buy Seeds
Red Iceberg 80 days An iceberg variety with reddish-tinted leaves. Quite pretty. Buy Seeds

Butterhead Lettuce

Tom Thumb lettuce in hand
Tom Thumb lettuce, a baseball-sized head. Source: terriem

Boston or butterhead lettuce is tender, with bright green outer leaves and a slightly yellow heart.  It’s high in vitamins and minerals with an amazing taste.  Most of the varieties in the butterhead family need cooler weather and high-quality soil in order to grow well.

Variety Growing Time Description Where To Buy
Rex 50 days A popular lettuce for hydroponic growing. Slow-bolting, tolerant to tipburn. Buy Seeds
Yugoslavian Red 60 days Incredibly wildly colored leaves, buttery and mild flavor. Buy Seeds
Big Boston 70 days 1890 variety. Large and tender, great in salads. Buy Seeds
Drunken Woman Frizzy Headed 55 days Mint-green leaves tinged with mahogany red, savoyed shape. Crazy name! Buy Seeds
Buttercrunch 65 days Buttery-flavored 6-8″ tall slightly crumpled leaves. Pale-colored heart. Long season. Buy Seeds
Deer Tongue 50 days Slightly pointed leaves that grow in almost a pinwheel pattern. Compact, slow to bolt. Buy Seeds
Four Seasons 55 days Heirloom variety. Outside leaves are tinged red, inside leaves are yellow. Buy Seeds
May Queen 50 days Tender, yellow centers with rose tints. Sweet buttery flavored heirloom. Buy Seeds
Tom Thumb 50 days Miniature butterhead lettuce which makes baseball-sized tasty heads. Good for salads. Buy Seeds
Summer Bibb 43 days Popular traditional butterhead variety with light green leaves. Often self-blanches in the center. Buy Seeds

Stem Lettuce

Celtuce stalks
Celtuce stalks. Source: Nate Gray

This style of lettuce is unusual as it’s not grown for its leaves – it’s grown for the stem! Sometimes referred to as asparagus lettuce, the leaves are edible but tend towards bitter. However, when peeled, the stem itself is crisp, tasty, and tends to be sweet. Used in a lot of Asian cooking, and in China, it’s referred to as “wosun”.

Variety Growing Time Description Where To Buy
Celtuce 75 days A Chinese stem lettuce grown not for the leaves, but for its tasty stalk. Buy Seeds
Summer 38 75 days Another Chinese stem lettuce which is tolerant to both heat and cold. Slow-bolting. Buy Seeds

Unusual Lettuce Types

Rouxai lettuce
Rouxai lettuce. Source: thesoutherngardener

There’s so many types of lettuce that there’s no possible way I can feature them all. However, these varieties deserved a mention. Most of these varieties are hybrids of two different styles of lettuce mentioned above. Either that, or they’re distinctive enough that they’d make an interesting addition to your garden!

Variety Growing Time Description Where To Buy
New Yu Mai 60 days Taiwanese variety with sword-shaped leaves and a mildly bitter flavor. Buy Seeds
Australian Yellow 55 days Bright yellow-green loose-leaf variety. Heat tolerant and bolt-resistant. Buy Seeds
Taiwan Sword Leaf 60 days Also known as Oriental lettuce, it has long and pointed bright green leaves. Buy Seeds
Flashy Butter Oak 55 days Oak-leaf shaped leaves with a cos growth habit. Stunning in gardens. Buy Seeds
Rouxai 47 days Lobed dark red leaves with a bright green interior. High resistance to downy mildew and some pests. Buy Seeds
Sanguine Ameliore 60 days Also called Strawberry Cabbage lettuce. 19th century French heirloom, very pale yellow with rose spotting. Buy Seeds
Midnight Ruffles 45 days So purple it’s almost ebony, deeply crinkled leaves, and pale hearts. Buy Seeds


Jericho lettuce seedlings
Jericho lettuce seedlings. Source: 46137

Getting your lettuce off to a good start is the best way to ensure you’ll have an abundant crop. Here’s exactly how to do it!

When To Plant Lettuce

As lettuce is a cool-weather crop, it’s important to time your planting times to fit within those cooler temperatures. It will not germinate at soil temperatures above 80 degrees. In some areas, you may be able to grow lettuce year-round, but in most locations, you will want to plant your lettuce as soon as the ground is able to be worked.

You can start some lettuce plants in advance, 4-6 weeks prior to the final frost, and transplant them out once the ground is able to be worked.

Plant in succession every 2 weeks to ensure you have a consistent crop throughout the growing season. As the weather warms up, switch to more heat-resistant varieties of lettuce.

When the summer heat is starting to subside, you can get another crop of lettuce in. Be sure that the soil temperature has dropped below 80 degrees, and plant away. If you’re in an area which doesn’t get heavy freezing conditions, your growing season can continue throughout a lot of the winter, too!

Where To Plant Lettuce

Lettuce does extremely well in raised bed gardens, but while it tolerates springtime sun, it needs protection from summer’s harsh rays. If you plan on trying to grow into the hotter months of the year, pick a shady portion of your yard in which to grow your lettuce. This will protect it from the elements.

You can grow your lettuce directly in ground-level beds, but if you do that, be sure to keep a watchful eye out, as slugs and snails are very happy to eat all your young crops!

How To Plant Lettuce

Little Gem lettuce seedlings
Little Gem lettuce seedlings. Source: missellyrh

To plant lettuce, you first need to ensure your soil is prepared. It should be loose and well-draining, and you will want to make sure it’s well broken up. Large clods of soil can slow down germination. Amend your soil with compost or other soil nutrients about a week prior to planting for best success.

Direct sow your seed 1/4″ to 1/2″ under the surface. You can broadcast seed for a larger area, or you can plant in rows, depending on your preference. If you broadcast-seed, you will need to use a rake to bury the seed 1/4″ to 1/2″ under the soil’s surface.

As the plants begin to come up, thin them according to their type. Looseleaf lettuces should be spaced about 3-4″ apart. Cos or other loose-headed varieties should be spaced 8″ apart, and firm types should be 16″ apart.

Once your seeds are planted, water them in lightly and regularly water them every few days until germination. Sow every 2-3 weeks for a continuous harvest.

Caring For Lettuce

Rouge d'Hiver lettuce plot
Rouge d’Hiver lettuce plot. Source: matthew_middleton

Lettuce grows almost as readily as grass in most areas. But it can be tricky to maintain it in warmer locations. Follow these tips for the best chance of lettuce success!


In the cooler months, full sun is just fine for your lettuce, but as it starts to warm up, the sun’s rays will scorch your tender leaves. I opt to grow lettuce in shadier locations year-round, just to get the most out of those areas which won’t usually provide much produce. While it’s good for your lettuce to have at least an hour or two of sun during the day, pick locations where the peak sunlight periods aren’t going to harm your tender greens.


Lettuce likes the temperature range between 45 and 65 degrees best. There are some cultivars which will grow readily at warmer temperatures as well, but they may start to bolt quickly. Once temperatures are over 80 degrees consistently, grow your plants in the shade and be sure that they have lots of air around them to keep them cooler.


Merlot lettuce
Merlot lettuce. Source: Strata Chalup

Water makes up the majority of your lettuce’s crisp greens, so they require regular watering. Never allow the soil to completely dry out — you want them to have consistent and regular moisture to draw on. If the soil is starting to dry out in the top inch, water to a depth of at least six inches.

It’s important to mulch around your lettuce to keep the soil moist and give your plants the best chance of success. Try to leave at least an inch or two around the base of your plant bare of mulch, so that it isn’t right up against the leaves. However, the mulch will help keep moisture in around your plant and protect against weeds.


Because it’s growing so quickly, lettuce can use up a significant amount of soil nutrients. Most lettuce likes humus-rich soil with a high nitrogen content. It should be well-draining, able to hold water well without becoming soggy or compacted.

Prior to planting your lettuce, it’s advisable to work some aged compost in about 6″ below the soil’s surface. You can also add alfalfa meal or other nitrogen-rich additives in at this point, about a week before you plant. This will help give your lettuce a good start as it begins growing.


The initial pre-sowing fertilization is the most important. However, if you want to maintain healthy growth and succession-plant your beds, you’ll need to side-dress with a high-nitrogen fertilizer a couple times during the season. Using a nitrogen-rich aged compost will work well for this purpose.

You can also opt for a liquid fertilizer. Don’t apply this directly to the leaves of your lettuce plants if you’re planning on harvesting soon, though – apply directly to the soil around the plants. Fish or seaweed emulsions work very well, as does a rich compost tea. If your plants are young, fertilizing the leaves themselves is alright, but don’t fertilize within five to seven days of harvesting.


Freckles lettuce
Freckles lettuce. Source: matthew_middleton

Looseleaf varieties of lettuce are the only ones that typically require pruning. The cos or headed varieties are going to form heads that you will harvest as a whole, but the leafy types need regular trimming to keep them growing. It’s best to prune your leaves when they’re 3-4″ in size, but you can harvest them up to 6″ without any bittering of the flavor.

When pruning, trim from the outside, leaving the inner leaves intact. This will encourage your plant to keep producing more leaves from its center, and as they mature, they will replace the removed outer leaves.

You can trim back the entire plant to about 1-2″ from the ground once it reaches 3-6″ in height, which should be roughly every 10-18 days. This method is referred to as “cut and come again”, and the plant will rapidly regrow, giving you a regular harvest.

If the plant begins to produce a seed stalk, it’s time to remove that plant unless you wish it to produce seed. Any pest-damaged, wilted, or otherwise problematic leaves on the plant can be pruned out at any time.


Lettuce propagates through seed, and only through seed. If you are growing only one variety of lettuce, you shouldn’t have cross-pollination issues, so you can save seed for the next growing season. But if you’re growing a number of lettuce types as most of us do, you will want to purchase new seed rather than save your own, as it may form unusual and less-favorable hybrids.


If you start seed in advance, you can easily transplant out lettuce into your garden beds once it’s ready. Space your loose-leaf varieties no closer together than 4″, cos or romaines no closer than 8″, and firm-headed varieties 12-16″. Be sure that there’s ample amount of space for your plants to breathe. Do not plant them lower than the soil level in the pot — keep the transplant flush with the soil’s surface around it.

If you’re growing only for baby leaf production, you may be able to grow your loose-leaved varieties closer together. Pay close attention if you do this, though, as too tightly-packed of a lettuce bed can become infested with various mildews or pests quickly.

Harvesting and Storing Lettuce

Lettuce leaf harvest
Lettuce leaf harvest. Source: Pain Chaud

The most difficult part of harvesting and storing lettuce is that no matter what you do, it won’t last for very long! Read on to find out how to harvest and store your lettuce. I’ve also included a list of ways to use up the excess lettuce you may find on hand.

Harvesting Lettuce

It’s best to harvest your lettuce early in the morning when it’s at its crispest. Overnight cooler temperatures will have allowed your lettuce to suck in moisture and firm up. Later in the day, even the nicest-looking leaf lettuce will be softer than you’d prefer.

Leaf varieties can be harvested as directed in the “pruning” section up above, using a sharp pair of scissors. Head varieties can either have outer leaves trimmed off for immediate use or can be grown until the full head has developed.

To harvest full heads of lettuce, you can opt to either cut off the lettuce at its base, or to pull the plant out roots and all. If removing the whole head, you will need to use a sharp knife to cut it off at the soil’s surface. More lettuce leaves may regrow from the base.

Pulling it out by the roots does make it easier to start another batch of lettuce in the same location after adding a bit more compost to the soil, so if you are succession planting, it might be be easiest to use this method and compost your roots.

Deciding when to harvest your heads of lettuce is as simple as giving them a gentle squeeze. A head which is not quite ready will easily compress under your fingers. Cos or butterhead varieties can either be harvested leaf by leaf, or can be harvested as a whole head when they are semi-firm but not solid. Crisphead lettuce should be harvested when the lettuce is firm.

It’s best to harvest your lettuce early rather than letting it go later. The older the lettuce leaves, the more bitter they will get, and it can become tough or woody. Pay attention to the estimated days to maturity on your lettuce seed packet, and try to harvest it at or just before that date hits.

Storing Lettuce

Deer tongue lettuce
Deer’s Tongue lettuce. Source: VitaminGreen

One of the most troublesome aspects of lettuce is that it is best when really fresh. This is especially true of loose-leaf lettuces, which are best eaten the day that they’re picked.

However, you can store loose-leaf lettuce for a few days if needed. Begin by filling a bowl full of cold or cool water. Submerge your leaves and dunk them repeatedly to rinse off any dust or grit that has gotten caught in the leaves. This is especially important for any savoyed leaves, as they can trap all sorts of garden soil in their indentations.

Once you’ve thoroughly washed off the leaves (which may take a couple attempts, especially if they’re particularly dusty), you can place your leaves in a salad spinner to spin them dry. Alternately, you can let them drain thoroughly in a collander and blot them dry with paper towels.

It’s essential that your leaf lettuce is completely dry before storing. Once it’s dry, place your leaves between paper towels to absorb any stray moisture, and then place them in a sealed plastic bag. Be sure to press out all excess air. This will help you preserve your leaf lettuce for a few days’ time.

Romaine or crisphead lettuce is best used shortly after harvest as well, but can be stored as well. If you cut it off at the base, a full head of crisphead lettuce can be stored wrapped in paper towels in a sealed plastic bag in the refrigerator for up to a week. Cos lettuce can also be stored this way, or broken down into individual leaves and stored as you would with a loose-leaf variety.

If any of your stored lettuce has started to wilt, don’t panic! Simply prepare a bowl full of ice and ice water and soak your lettuce leaves in it for about 15-30 minutes. They will soak up the moisture and crisp back up.

How To Use Up Extra Lettuce

Merlot lettuce leaf
Merlot lettuce leaf. Source: prb

Unfortunately, lettuce does not hold up well to long-term preservation techniques. However, if your lettuce is wilting faster than you’re making salads, you can use your lettuce greens up quickly by making a creamy lettuce soup or by making a stir-fry with them. While most people do not think of lettuce as being something which is meant to be cooked, it can be treated like spinach or other wilting greens, and can make a tasty side dish or a lightly-sweet soup.

There are people who have dehydrated lettuce to make a lettuce powder to add to smoothies or other power drinks, and that is an option, but it will not provide much flavor to your beverages. Still, if you have an abundance of lettuce, this might be an option for you!

You can also use this method to try to make lettuce “chips”, but as they crumble in your fingers, this may be more trouble than it’s worth; using them as a powder is easier.

Dehydrated lettuce does not rehydrate very well. It’ll be limp and unappetizing. It’s best to use it in its dried form.

Troubleshooting Lettuce Problems

Lettuce should be pretty easy to grow. But what if it’s not? Here’s a list of common issues you may encounter and how to handle them.

Growing Problems

Rouge Grenobloise lettuce
Rouge Grenobloise lettuce. Source: anneheathen

One of the most common problems is poor germination. This occurs when you’re not watering consistently or frequently enough while trying to sprout new plants. The soil must be consistently and evenly moist for best germination. While some types of lettuce have lower rates of germination than others, the majority typically have about an 85% germination rate, so your watering habits are likely the issue.

If the edges of your leaves are turning brown, you’re experiencing tip burn. This is usually caused by inconsistent watering. Using a drip irrigation system regularly can reduce the likelihood of tip burn. Planting resistant cultivars that can tolerate warmer conditions can also stop this problem.

Check your plants on warmer days. If you see signs of wilting, they’re probably in need of water. You can spritz lettuce with a fine mist of water to perk it up on those hotter days, but it’s important to pair that spritz with a good base watering as well so they have plenty of moisture.

However, in wetter conditions during the rainy spring months, wilting may be a sign of too much water. A lack of good drainage can cause your roots to develop rot, and that will ruin the plant. If the weather is mild, don’t water until you’ve checked your soil moisture. It’s possible to ruin your harvest by overwatering!

Is your lettuce turning yellow — and it’s not a yellow or yellow-green variety? It may be hungering for a good dose of nitrogen. Try giving it some compost tea or a fish or seaweed emulsion fertilizer at the base of the plant. It should green back up.

To prevent bolting during hotter months, try planting lettuce beneath taller leafy plants like tomatoes to give it shelter from the hot sun. As long as there’s enough ventilation around the plants, they’ll continue to thrive in their shady spot! You can also opt to use a floating row cover to provide shade, but be sure that the ends are kept open to provide airflow.

If you find your lettuce tastes bitter or is woody in texture, it’s too old. You need to harvest lettuce while the leaves are tender and flavorful, before they begin to bitter. Harvest earlier and more consistently for the best flavor.

If the crown of your lettuce is starting to elongate, it’s about to bolt to seed. At this point, your plant is past its eating prime and should be removed unless you plan on harvesting seed from it.

Finally, if you’re in an area where you get a bone-chilling winter, be sure to put a cold frame over your lettuce to give it some warmth. While many types of lettuce are cold-resistant, temperatures below 25 degrees regularly can still cause your plants to fail, and hard freeze conditions will ruin your leaves. If necessary, you can move your plants indoors. Place them in an area with indirect bright lighting like a window, and make sure the temperature range is between 45-65 degrees for best growth.


Flea beetle
A flea beetle, one of the many lettuce pests. Source: sankax

Aphids are a common pest on lettuces, and for that matter nearly any green and leafy vegetable. These tiny pests suck the fluids out of tender leaves and stems. To combat these, spray all surfaces of your lettuce with neem oil. Consider planting aphid-repelling plants like chives or garlic near your lettuce bed. Plants like cilantro or dill will lure in beneficial insects to eat your aphid population.

A thorough application of neem oil will also reduce the presence of thrips, another sucking pest. Thrips will scar your lettuce or cause it to yellow and wilt.

The flea beetle will eat holes through your lettuce leaves. Since we all want to eat our own produce, that’s not a good thing! Use a spinosad spray like Monterey Garden Insect Spray to deal with these tiny jumping beetles.

Cutworms will nibble right through the base of your young lettuce shoots. While there are ways to prevent these caterpillars using plant collars or other similar things, I recommend spraying your plants with Monterey BT. The bacillus in that spray will kill off the larval stages of cutworm moths and many other caterpillars.

Root knot nematodes and other pestilent forms of nematodes can take up residence in the soil beneath your plants. These attack the roots, causing knotting, scarring, and large nodules to develop on the roots and preventing your plant from absorbing nutrients. Spreading beneficial nematodes will help to wipe out the population of the pest nematodes, as they will seek out and kill the other varieties. They will also attack pupae in the soil, making another line of defense against cutworms or other pests.

Slimy slugs and snails will eat huge gouges out of your lettuce leaves if given half a chance. There’s multiple different methods to prevent these, but all of them involve bait. Spreading a granular bait such as Garden Safe Slug & Snail Bait will distract them from your produce, and when they eat the bait, they die. You can also half-bury a container of old beer in your lettuce patch, and when snails or slugs are drawn by the smell of the beer, they will drown.

Not all lettuce pests are insects. Rabbits, woodchucks, and deer can all be drawn to your lettuce beds, and will helpfully eat anything you have there. There are many different options to keep these much larger garden-munchers at bay, but one of the easiest is to place floating row covers over your lettuce bed. That keeps other insect pests out, too!


Lettuce bacterial blight
An example of lettuce bacterial blight of the pseudomonas species. Source: Scot Nelson

One of the early diseases which can impact your lettuce is damping off. Caused by a soilborne fungus, it thrives in cool, damp and cloudy conditions. Your seedlings will wilt and fall over. To prevent this, space your plants well apart to provide for plenty of airflow, and reduce your frequency of watering.

Sclerotinia is another fungus which can impact your plants. There are a few varieties of sclerotinia. The most common for lettuce is sclerotinia stem rot, which can cause a whitish mold to appear along the stem and base of your plant. The treatment for this fungal disease is much the same as damping off – space your plants wide enough to allow for plenty of air to move around them, and reduce the frequency of watering. Remove affected plants and destroy them. Do not compost them.

The pseudomonas bacteria can cause base rot and leaf rot, as shown in the picture above. If you are seeing signs of this, pull and destroy affected plants, and spray the remaining plants with a copper fungicide such as Bonide Copper Fungicide. This will reduce the rate of bacterial spread and should save your other plants. Rotate your lettuce out of that location for future plantings.

Downy mildew will cause light green to yellow spots on the top of lettuce leaves. Underneath the leaf, white mold forms on the bottom of the leaf spots. Trim off any affected leaves and destroy them. Treat the rest of the plant with Bonide Copper Fungicide to reduce further spread.

Finally, lettuce necrotic yellows and the lettuce mosaic virus are both diseases carried by aphids. To be sure your plants will not contract these diseases, be sure your lettuce is aphid-free by regularly spraying the leaves with neem oil to repel them. Floating row covers can also protect your lettuce from aphids or other pest insects.

Frequently Asked Questions

Four Seasons lettuce
Four Seasons lettuce. Source: Elsa Spezio

Q: Are there good companion plants for lettuce?

A: Lettuce likes to hang out with carrots, radishes, cucumbers and strawberries. To deter aphids, planting rows of chives, cilantro, or garlic between rows of lettuce will help, as aphids don’t like the aroma of these plants. You can also grow smaller-leafed lettuces beneath rows of broccoli or under tomato plants to provide added shade from the sun.

However, be careful. Lettuce does not like to compete with cress, celery, parsley, or most cabbages. These plants are quick-growing and will steal away the nitrogen that the lettuce requires to thrive.

Q: What is mesclun lettuce?

A: Mesclun is actually a mix of different types of lettuce leaves. Spring mix is also a blend. Sometimes these will include other things such as radicchio or Napa cabbage, but most of the time it’s just a blend of lettuce types. You can make your own spring mix or mesclun mix quite easily out of your garden harvest, and it’ll taste a whole lot better than what you buy at the supermarket!

Ready to make lettuce part of your garden? It’s an easy-growing addition and well worth the minimal time spent! What’s your favorite variety of lettuce? Do you prefer crisp lettuces or tender buttery ones? Share with us all below!

Learning the secrets of how to grow lettuce will let you harvest delicious, nutritious greens every single week. Learn how in this complete guide!

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